Theodore Thomas, the famed conductor, is known for bringing symphonic music and orchestras to people who had never heard this type of performance. In order to draw individuals from all walks of life, Thomas mixed both light and serious (popular and classical) pieces and is credited with introducing Richard Wagner's music to America. He
Thomas was born in Germany in 1835 and taught himself how to play the violin and by age 14, he was touring the United States as a soloist. Following his debut as a conductor -- here, too, he was self-taught -- Thomas formed his own orchestra which toured the U.S. for twenty years.
In 1872, when Thomas brought his orchestra to Cincinnati on his regular tour, Maria Longworth Nichols and her husband George Ward Nichols got together with Thomas to discuss an idea they'd had of presenting a festival of choral music. This festival would be quite different than those held in the Saengerfest and German Singing Society traditions, which included a lot of socializing, food and beer drinking. Thomas was eager to fashion performances and he signed on as music director of the then-biennial May Festival, a position he held until 1904.
Much to Thomas's credit, the first May Festival was quite a success, and the Nichols, along with Reuben Springer, wanted to keep their talented music director in Cincinnati as much as possible, so they built a professional-level music school in 1878 and hired Thomas as Director. George Ward Nichols became the College's President.
It wasn't long until Thomas and Nichols started "butting heads", each wanting to be the one to determine policy for the institution. (Mr. Thomas's interest was in artistic development and Mr. Nichols's concern was for the bottom line.) In early 1880, it was reported that Mr. Thomas wanted reforms to make the institution a "real college of music" with him as the "real and undisputed head". The Directors of the College of Music agreed to a few minor changes, but the ignored the more radical ones, which included strengthening the method of education by requiring that students matriculate for a certain fixed course rather than come in and take a few lessons here and there.
The lack of support for his reform angered the disciplined Mr. Thomas. He wanted the college to be more like the great musical conservatories abroad which offered fixed terms of study over several years. Despite being only eighteen months into his five-year contract, he resigned. Thomas maintained his position with the May Festival and was reported to have been on good terms with many in the community.
Following his resignation, Thomas returned to New York where he was once again welcomed as the music director of the Philharmonic. He later became the first music director of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. The city built a new hall for the orchestra in 1904 and Thomas conducted the dedicatory concert there on December 14th. He had, however, contracted the flu during the rehearsals for that concert and died of pneumonia on January 4, 1905.